Hobby Farming

Farming is one of the first activities started by humans which lead to settlements becoming possible. Farm produce dominated the trade flows and the taxes in the ancient and medieval times were collected/paid in the form of a ratio of farm produce.  Farming can be a fascinating activity for some while it can be boring … Read more

Essay topics for class 10 Himachal Board

himachal board

English is a significant piece of the Himachal Board Class 10 educational plan. Understudies who expect to score good grades in DHARAMSHALA BOARD Class 10 board test should focus on the English subject. Scoring marks in a language subject, for example, English requires brilliant information on sentence structure and jargon. Understudies ought to have the … Read more

Techniques of testing listening

Techniques of testing listening

Listening is perceived differently in different ears. Testing listening and the ability to communicate or comprehend should be emphasized while testing listening. In other words, the listening test should mention the ability of communicative comprehension. Language skills can be improved with proper stress, rhythm, and intonation. The following techniques can be used while testing listening … Read more

Stages of teaching listening skill

stages of teaching listening skills

The activities that are used for teaching listening can be categorized into three distinct stages: pre-listening activities, while-listening activities, and post-listening activities. 1. Pre Listening Activities: It is the first stage in which the learners are motivated or encouraged to listen to something making them clear what they are going to hear about. In order … Read more

Problems in teaching listening skill

problems in teaching listening skill

Most of the learners, learning English in a non-native context, feel some sort of difficulty in understanding what they hear in a real-life situation which ultimately leads to a gap in communication or breaks the whole communication process. The reasons for teaching listening in the classroom are that the students should learn to function successfully … Read more

Critical Pedagogy

The concept of critical pedagogy can be traced back to Paulo Freire’s best-known 1968 work, ‘The Pedagogy of the Oppressed’. Freire, a professor of history and the philosophy of education at the University of Recife in Brazil, sought in this and other works to develop a philosophy of adult education that demonstrated solidarity with the … Read more

The Lexical Approach

The lexical approach is a method of teaching foreign languages described by Michael Lewis in the early 1990s. The basic concept on which this approach rests is the idea that an important part of learning a language consists of being able to understand and produce lexical phrases as chunks. A lexical approach to language teaching … Read more

Content-based Second Language Instruction

Content-based Second Language Instruction, which is also known as Content-Based Instruction ( CBI), is an approach to second language teaching in which teaching is organized around the content or information that students will acquire, rather than around a linguistic or another type of syllabus. Krahnke, (1987: 65 as cited in Richards and Rodgers, 2001: 204) … Read more

Audio-lingual Method

The Audio-lingual Method of teaching English as a second language had its origin during World War II. At that time, there was a need for people to learn languages rapidly for military purposes. The entry of the United States into World War II had a significant effect on language teaching in America. This method is … Read more

Direct Method

This method emerged in the late 19th century as a reaction to the Grammar Translation Method since the Grammar Translation Method was not very effective in preparing students to use the target language communicatively. The Direct Method receives its name from the fact that meaning is to be conveyed directly in the target language without … Read more