• Naturalism is a materialistic philosophy.
  • It believes that the material world is a real world.
  • It believes that there is no existence of the spiritual world beyond this material world.
  • The main element of this material world is the nature which is eternal.
  • It believes that nature never changes.
  • Change takes place only in the external form of nature but the constituent elements of nature always remain the same.
  • For example, water can change into ice or vapor, but the constituent elements, hydrogen and oxygen remain the same.
  • It believes in atomic theory and energy theory which believe that ‘energy can’t be created and destroyed; only its form changes’ .
  • Nature is self evident. It remains the same forever. It is the ultimate truth.
  • We can attain this ultimate truth by experiencing.
  • Since the nature is the eternal truth, the main aim of human life should be to live according to the law of nature.
  • It believes that the natural knowledge is the purest form of knowledge, which becomes contaminated after the handling of human beings.  Philosophical premises/Features/ Fundamental Principles of  Naturalism

  1. Nature is eternal or ultimate reality/truth.
  2. Material/physical world is real world. This world is governed by external laws.
  3. Changes occur in only external form. The internal elements remain unchanged.
  4. Only the knowledge acquired by senses is the true knowledge.
  5. Soul is a material thing made by many elements and activities.
  6. The development of human beings is a natural process.
  7. Natural life is essential for happy living.
  8. Nature is the source of all knowledge.  Nature/Forms/Types of Naturalism

  • Naturalism of physical sciences or Physical naturalism
  • Mechanical naturalism
  • Biological naturalism
  • Naturalism of physical sciences or Physical naturalism

  • This form explains the structure of physical world. It believes that the physical world is made of some fundamental elements. On the types of these fundamental elements there are two theories;
  1. Atomic theory
  • It believes that the fundamental particle of an element is atom.
  1. Energy theory
  • It believes in the law of conservation of energy which states ‘Energy can’t be created, it can’t be destroyed. It only changes its form.’
  • Mechanical naturalism

  • This form studies the behaviour of human beings . This theory terms human beings as a machine and their acts as the mechanical act. It believes that human beings are like a machine which has some fundamental elements or processes. The behaviourist school of learning theory is the product of this form.
  • Biological naturalism

This form studies about entire living organisms. This form is based on the views of famous biologists Charles Darwin and Lamark. It believes the development of living organism is based on the theory of evolution. It explains the development of the living organism as ‘struggle for existence’ or ‘survival of the fittest’. According to this theory, human beings have an ability to be successful in this struggle; therefore, human beings are the most developed organisms.  Naturalism and aim of education

  1. Preparation for complete living
  2. Self preservation
  3. Securing necessity of life
  4. Raising children
  5. Maintaining social and political relation
  6. Use of leisure time
  7. Attainment of natural life
  8. Work like a machine
  9. Assisting in the struggle for existence. Naturalism and Educative Process

  1. Education should be pleasurable.
  2. Education is for the body as well as the mind.
  3. Method of instruction should be inductive.
  4. Education should meet with maturation.
  5. Education should engage the spontaneous self-activity of the child.
  6. Correction of mistakes by healthy balance of mental and physical activities.
  7. Punishment should be constituted by natural consequences of wrong deeds. Naturalism and Curriculum

  • According to naturalism, education should prepare individuals for complete living.
  • Complete living is possible by making them able for self preservation.
  • It also believes that education should be according to natural instinct of the individual.
  • Therefore, it emphasizes on the development of those abilities of individuals, which make them successful in the struggle for existence.
  • Naturalist curriculum emphasizes on the development of natural abilities of the individual.
  • Only through such abilities the individual will become able to explore the nature and to find its ultimate truth.
  • Naturalism believes that truth can be acquired by experiences. Naturalism and role of teacher

  1. Creator of natural environment
  2. A planner
  3. Determiner of the stage of maturity of learners
  4. A guide, gardener or a friend
  5. A person respecting learners’ freedom
  6. A motivator or initiator
  7. Teacher as full of moral virtues Naturalism and role of students

  1. Center of educative process
  2. Education by own effort
  3. Preparation for complete living
  4. Able to be successful in the struggle for existence

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