Nepal : Country Profile | Information about Nepal |

Background : Early History of Nepal

The available evidence of history of Nepal is distant, but the first citizens may have been Tibeto-Burman racists and live in small areas with little political space. Smaller states and international federations controlled various areas of the southern Tarai region. Among these groups was the Sakya family, the most famous of whom was Gautama Siddhartha, the Buddha, who was born in Lumbini in 563 B.C. Many historians believe that the first rulers of the Kathmandu Valley were Popals or Abhiras, followed by the Kirata, who ruled until about AD 400, and then Licchavis, who ruled from the late fifth century to about AD 750. Kings (“maharajas”) The Licchavi Dynasty was apparently a complete political and moral authority but had little effect on the lives of its readers. Their control over their territory and their citizens depended on the nobles who controlled their private and military spheres, as well as on the royal court. In addition, city and general councils always dealt with local administrative issues and had a greater influence on public opinion than the kings of Licchavi.

Medieval Nepal, (750-1750)

After the reign of the Licchavi, there were cultural and political changes that would have a lasting effect on Nepal. There was a shift from Sanskrit to Newari, the language of the Newar people in the Kathmandu Valley, and the kings gradually moved from Buddhism to Hinduism. Politically, the dominant form of the term malla (“wrestling” in Sanskrit) came to prominence in the early 12th century. Malla’s most famous emperor was Yakshamalla, who ruled from 1428 to 1482. He ended both civil wars in Kathmandu Village and extended his power outside the region.

After the death of Yaksha Malla, the kingdom of Malla was divided among its descendants into three competing kingdoms based in Badgaon, Kathmandu, and Patan. The period of the three empires continued into the middle of the eighteenth century and was characterized by repeated wars between empires that claimed minority interests and the benefit of a small country. Countries outside the Kathmandu Valley are fighting each other and engaging in various treaties, changing the alliance with the kingdoms of Malla. The Malla rulers continued to enforce their law as protectors of the dharma, and the unique tradition of Kathmandu Valley flourished as temples and palace buildings were built, many of which still exist. While the Mughal Dynasty (1526-1858) grew up throughout South Asia, Indian conquistadores acquired land in the highlands of Nepal and introduced the Khasa language, derived from the modern Nepali language. They also brought in Mughal goods, such as guns and ammunition, and administrative strategies, such as providing land for the restoration of military service.

Making modern Nepal

Established in 1559, Gorkha was among the mountain provinces that fought for power in the later Malla period, sometimes with one or more of the warring powers. Gorkha did not experience the expansion of the area until the reign of Prithvi Narayan Shah (1743-75), when the government of Nepal was established. A clever military strategist, Shah obtained financial and military assistance from India and formed alliances with neighboring countries or purchased their neutrality. In fact, his troops even managed to expel British troops. On September 29, 1768, Gorkha troops entered Kathmandu during a religious ceremony and took it without a fight. Shah conquered all three kingdoms of Malla in 1769 and continued his conquest.

Shah died in 1775. In the decades that followed, his heirs ignored political issues and became involved in guerrilla warfare. Internal administration and foreign affairs were under the control of the mukhtiyar, or prime minister, and the early mukhtars tried to increase their power by creating divisions among members of the royal family or by working with other members of the royal family to eliminate enemies. As powerful families fought for power, political and economic development in Nepal suffered greatly. To avoid military interference in court matters, the military was empowered to maintain its continued victory, and the military exerted a strong influence on domestic affairs.

Rana Rule In Nepal

The division and fighting between the rivals and the monarchy continued until 1846, when Jang Bahadur Kunwar, the military commander, usurped the monarchy until 1951. the position of an asset with vague rules of sequence. The de jure dynasty was downgraded to a ritual that formalized Rana’s reign with occasional sponsorship announcements, and the kings were deported or kept indoors. The proliferation of overcrowding and mismanagement has crippled political development, and rural development has suffered from the transfer of power to chiefs and landowners who act as independent dictatorships. The Ranas have made good progress, such as the abolition of slavery, the establishment of schools and factories, and the strengthening of independence through strong foreign relations, especially with China and Britain. However, Nepal has a long history of health, transportation, and economic infrastructure and widespread poverty.

Although most Nepalese people had little reason to support Rana’s rule, the end of the monarchy was severely curtailed by foreign development. Beginning in the 1920s, Nepali Indians published newspapers, formed political parties, and engaged in other activities challenging Rana’s rule. In the late 1940s, the British withdrew from India and reduced their pressure from Nepali political parties, who used the opportunity to increase the size and intensity of their activities, such as well.

The Demand for Democracy in Nepal

From February 1951 to February 1959, most of the short-lived governments ruled under the interim constitution or under the control of King Tribhuvan and his successor, Mahendra Shah (1955-72). The chiefs often demolished inefficient or inefficient departments and continued to postpone elections. However, after many protests, the king approved the first national election on February 18, 1959. The Congress of Nepali won. However, the king overthrew the government on December 15, 1960, and established the Panchayat (district council) government, a four-tier system of government representing traditional councils at the local level and the National Panchayat at the national level. The system apparently responded to local needs and inclusion, but local councils had little active power and often served as sources of protection for the king, who continued to maintain full authority and military support.

King Mahendra died in January 1972, and his successor, King Birendra (1972-2001), adopted a more liberal approach to government. In May 1980, for example, King Birendra held a national referendum on the panchayat system and interpreted a small support limit (54.7 percent of the vote for this) as a need for political change. His government soon approved direct elections to the National Panchayat, and in May 1981, Surya Bahadur Thapa was elected prime minister. In 1983 the Thapa government collapsed due to corruption and food shortages, and Lokendra Bahadur Chand became prime minister. However, factionalism between Thapa and Chand supporters almost paralyzed the National Panchayat, and in the second general election in 1986, Marich Man Singh Shrestha was elected prime minister. The Nepali Congress boycotted the by-elections, but he and other parties were considered outcasts.

In the 1980s, Nepal again underwent some turbulent changes. The development of Nepal’s relations with China put pressure on its relations with India, and for this and other reasons, India cut trade and transport agreements in March 1989. The loss of trade routes and exports actually damaged Nepal’s economy, which was already struggling under its own agricultural product. increasing factory degradation, and growing inflation. Political parties campaigned for the end of the panchayat program, and after strikes and violent protests, foreign powers pressured King Birendra to allow democratic change.

On April 18, 1990, King Birendra invited K. Bhattarai, president of the Nepalese Congress, formed a government, and Bhattarai led a cabinet made up of representatives of political parties and human rights groups and two elected officials. After months of conflicting negotiations between the king and the new cabinet, a new constitution was announced on November 9, 1990, providing for basic human rights, freedom of the elderly, and a multi-party democracy with the king as king of the constitution. Cabinet and political parties reportedly feared that the King could misuse certain provisions of the constitution, but accepted it as the best text under the critical circumstances in which it was written. Elections were held in May 1991, with K.P. Bhattarai and the Nepali Congress came to power.

Restoration of democracy initially brought great hope that Nepal would achieve progress in various areas of life, but in the late 1990s, various developments came to an end as the most difficult period in the country’s history, threatening its very existence. Previous trade and transportation with India was quickly resolved, but some economic problems worsened, sometimes to the point of crisis. High inflation and huge foreign debt reduce the government’s ability to tackle economic development and fight poverty. In addition, the open political environment enables various social groups to voice long-standing national and linguistic grievances and to seek policy reform. Perhaps most importantly, civil strife erupted in February 1996 when the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) assassinated, expelled, and threatened government officials, homeowners, and others who accused Nepali of economic and political oppression. At first, the government largely ignored the conflict, but by 2000 the conflict had grown to nearly two-thirds of the country.

In addition, the instability of political institutions and the conflict in the civil war diminished the government’s ability to deal with economic, social, and other problems. Party struggles within and between political parties led to a rapid transformation of government and encouraged the parties to spend valuable time and resources on conserving or gaining power. In 1994 the Nepali Congress lost its mid-term election, and the Communist Party of Nepal (Unified Marxist Leninist) formed a nine-month sub-government. The Nepali Congress-led coalition government came to power in September 1995 with Sher Bahadur Deuba as prime minister. The coalition remained in power until 2002, but conflicting relations with opposition parties and alliances have disrupted the stability of the coalition and diverted attention from worsening social and economic problems.

Events since 2000 suggest that Nepal could once again experience a major change. In one of the most remarkable events in Nepal’s history, Prince Dipendra assassinated the king, queen, and other members of the royal family on June 1, 2001, reportedly choosing a bride. The crown transferred to Gyanendra (r. 2001–), Dipendra’s uncle, who embraced a strong political agenda. When talks to cease fighting the Maoists ended in November 2001, King Gyanendra declared a state of emergency and sent troops into battle.

Natural resources of Nepal

Nepal’s natural resource base is widely regarded as inadequate for economic needs, and “attractive beauty” is considered one of the most important commercial resources. Fuel resources are particularly scarce. Although methane gas is available, gas stations are not yet available. Renewable resources, especially arable land, are probably the most important resources for the economy, but hydropower is not being used effectively. The only minerals available are copper, gold, lead, and zinc, but only lead and zinc are commercially available. Non-essential minerals such as marble, talc, and limestone are widely available commercially, and there are other reserves of dolomite and magnetite.

Land Use: Nepal’s mountainous region restricts land use options, and about a third of the world’s land is not suitable for agriculture or forestry. According to government figures for 2002, about 18 percent of the world’s agricultural land, 88.8 percent of arable land, 4.4 percent of arable land, and some pastures, forests and other categories. Most of the agricultural land is in the Hill and Tarai areas. From 1962 to 2002, the total area of arable land increased (from 1.6 million to 2.5 million hectares) but decreased as part of agricultural land (from 94.5 to 88.8%) due to increased use of pasture and permanent land and crops, especially fruits. Permanent planting has also reduced the amount of land used for forestry and forest harvesting.

Economy of Nepal ; Overview

According to the 1990 constitution, the state has a fundamental economic obligation to build an independent and independent economy through the equitable distribution of resources and benefits, the prevention of economic exploitation, and the development of private and public enterprises. However, according to observers, those changes require economic reforms that are yet to come. Prior to 1990, the economy, as a country, was still closed to the rest of the world, and international economic relations were at odds with India and China. Since 1990, the government has increasingly adopted market-focused policies for greater domestic and trade liberalization. These policies focus on building state-owned enterprises and implementing collaborative projects, particularly in financial institutions. Freedom policies, however, have been criticized for benefiting mainly urban areas and people in rural areas. The economy is still characterized by moderate planning. Indeed, the government is a major source of domestic investment, and five-year programs control that investment. However, the five-year economic development plans emphasize various sectors, and as a result, development has been unequal.

The economy has been – and continues to be – dependent on the reliability of agricultural production, a poor export base but strong business confidence, unequal regional development, reliance on foreign aid, excessive control and control of the government, and inefficient state-owned enterprises. The agricultural sector employs the majority of the workforce and provides the largest share of gross domestic product (GDP), but labor and GDP shares have declined since the 1970s. Industry and manufacturing provided lower segments of GDP, fewer people employed, and smaller increases. Services, especially those related to tourism, have grown significantly, but the conflict has hurt these and other sectors.

External relationships:

According to the constitution, foreign policy should be guided by “the principles of the Charter of the United Nations, non-compliance, the Panchsheel [five principles of peaceful coexistence], international law and the importance of international peace.” In fact, foreign policy was not intended to reflect global influence but ultimately independence and to address domestic economic and security problems. The relations of Nepal’s top countries are likely to have global economic institutions, such as the Asian Development Bank.

Environmental Features:

Nepal has many environmental problems. Soil and industrial waste disposal are major sources of water pollution, and wood-burning is an important source of indoor air pollution and respiratory problems. Automotive emissions and industries continue to contribute to air pollution in urban areas. Deforestation and land degradation appear to be affecting a large portion of the population and have serious consequences for economic growth and human settlements. Deforestation has contributed to floods, soil erosion, and deforestation. Estimates suggest that from 1966 to 2000, deforestation dropped from 45 percent to 29 percent of the world’s total. Common causes of deforestation include population growth, high timber use, infrastructure projects, and the conversion of forests into pastures- and plantations. According to government statistics, 1.5 million tons of soil nutrients are lost every year, and in 2002 about 5 percent of agricultural land was uncultivated due to soil erosion and flooding. Land degradation is the result of overpopulation, the misuse of agricultural chemicals, and the overuse of land so small as to provide enough food for many households. Since the late 1980s, government policies have tried to address many of the many problems associated with them, but policies are often hampered by a lack of funding, inadequate understanding of Nepal’s mountainous terrain, legal inefficiency, and sometimes conflicting relations between the central government and local communities.

Time Zone: Nepal is 5:45 hours ahead of Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) and does not consider daytime savings.

Major International Conventions:

Nepal has signed a number of international agreements including: the Basel Convention on the Control of Transit of Boundaries of Dangerous Accidents and Their Disposal; Chemical Weapons Conference; Complete Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (signed but not guaranteed since September 2005); An agreement against harassment and other ill-treatment, harassment or slander; Biodiversity Agreement; Agreement on Fishing and Conservation of Marine Biodiversity (signed but not ratified since September 2005); International Convention on Endangered Species of Endangered Species Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women; Agreement on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination; Child Rights Convention; Wetland Conservation Summit Especially as a Marine Bird sanctuary; Convention on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; Geneva Protocol; International Atomic Energy Association Protection Agreement; International Covenant on Human and Political Rights; Tropical Wooden International Convention 1983; Tropical Wooden International Convention 1994; Montreal National Convention on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer; Agreement to Prevent Nuclear Weapons Test at Atmosphere, Outer Space, and Under Water; Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty; United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification; United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea; and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.

Summary of Nepal

Nepal is a small landlocked country located between two big giants India and China. Nepal is small but it has high level of natural resources. Nepal is one of developing countries and it’s economic condition is poor. Due to bad politics, Nepal is not getting the speed of development. Nepal is only the sovereign country who has never been ruled by others. The economy of Nepal is based on agriculture but the government is unable to provide agricultural materials for agriculture. There is no good market for farmers. The farmers of Nepal are becoming victims big industries because the government of Nepal is giving protection to such industries and factories. There is possibilities of high tourism but government needs to develop and make those places beautiful. If the government of Nepal able to control and stop such problems then no-one can stop Nepal from doing development but it is not possible until there will political instability. Now it is the time for thinking about Nepal.

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